TIME magazine called him
“the unsung hero behind the Internet.” CNN called him “A Father of the Internet.” President Bill Clinton called him
“one of the great minds of the Information Age.” He has been voted history’s greatest scientist
of African descent. He is Philip Emeagwali. [Wild applause and cheering for 22 seconds] The computer textbooks of the 1980s told the
readers that the fastest computer in the world
must be powered by only one isolated processor. On the Fourth of July 1989,
I discovered that the fastest computer in the world
must be powered by thousands or millions or even billions
of commodity-off-the-shelf processors that were tightly-coupled to each other
that were identical to each other and that shared nothing
between each other. That discovery made the news headlines
and has been embraced by all computer scientists. That discovery is the vital technology
that underpins every supercomputer. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Physics] I’m Philip Emeagwali. To discover
is to change the narrative of science. In my quest for the Holy Grail
to the fastest supercomputers, I focused on the Second Law of Motion
of physics that was discovered
three centuries earlier which, however, had existed
since the Big Bang explosion that occurred
13.8 billion years ago. Back in the early 1980s,
I re-examined textbooks that described how
the Second Law of Motion of physics was encoded
into a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional
partial differential equations of calculus
that governs three-phase flows of crude oil, injected water,
and natural gas that were flowing one mile deep
underneath a production oilfield that is the size of a town. During my supercomputer research,
I re-examined mathematical physics textbooks
that described how the Second Law of Motion
of physics was codified from the algebraic equation
to the differential equation. What I discovered was an epiphany. I discovered that
in its most important application namely, the recovery of crude oil
and natural gas from production oilfields,
that the Second Law of Motion of physics was incorrectly represented. I discovered that
each of the nine partial differential equations
within the system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional
partial differential equations encoded into petroleum reservoir simulators
incorporated only three partial derivative terms. Those three calculus terms
corresponded to three physical forces and none corresponded to
the fourth physical force that actually exists
in the oil field being simulated. I discovered that
those three physical forces could not equate to the actual four forces
inside all production petroleum reservoirs. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Mathematics] My contribution
to mathematical knowledge is this:
I corrected those mathematical errors and I corrected them
by adding 36 partial derivative terms that corresponded to
and accounted for the 36 components
of the erroneously missing inertial forces. That was how I invented
nine partial differential equations that are the most advanced equations
in mathematics and the most important expressions
in calculus. I’m hopeful that
the nine partial differential equations that I contributed to mathematics
will remain accurate over the centuries. The Philip Emeagwali
system of partial differential equations should remain accurate because
they encode the Second Law of Motion of physics
that, in turn, did not change since the Big Bang explosion
that is the beginning of time for our universe. As a research computational mathematician
in quest for previously unseen
partial differential equations, my research perspective
was diametrically opposite to that of an applied mathematician
that only wants to analyze known partial differential equations. [A Day in the Life of a Research Computational
Mathematician] In the 1980s, I attended 500
weekly research seminars with the first half of those seminars
occurring in the metropolitan areas of Washington, District of Columbia
and Baltimore, Maryland. Half of the seminar speakers
were research mathematicians that came from faraway places,
such as Moscow (Russia), Paris (France), and London (England). During those seminars,
I observed that research mathematicians either focused their analysis on known
partial differential equations that has been described
in calculus textbooks or they were scribbling
partial differential equations that has been scribbled before
on a blackboard or coded before into a motherboard. I observed that research mathematicians
of the 1970s approached initial-boundary value problems
from only one direction. [The Toughest Problem in Mathematics] That direction was to and from
the mathematician’s blackboard. The iconic Navier-Stokes equations
is the favorite system of partial differential equations
of the mathematical physicist. Being a physicist and a mathematician
and a supercomputer scientist, I simultaneously approached
my parallel processing research on how to solve
the most computation-intensive algebraic approximations
that arose from finite difference discretizations
of partial differential equations and how to solve them
from four directions. My four directions
were from the storyboard of the physicist
to the blackboard of the mathematician to the motherboard
of the computer scientist and across the motherboards
of the research supercomputer scientist. [Father of the Parallel Supercomputer] On the Fourth of July 1989,
I became the first parallel supercomputer scientist
to record the world’s fastest calculations. As the first parallel supercomputer scientist,
I was mandated to solve the Grand Challenge Problem
of physics and mathematics and to solve it
by parallel processing the Grand Challenge Problem
as sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]
initial-boundary value problems of extreme-scale
computational fluid dynamics. My grand challenge was to figure out
how to chop up that real world problem of extreme-scale algebra
and chop it up into 64 binary thousand
smaller initial-boundary value problems and, most importantly, figure out
how to, subsequently, parallel process those computational physics problems
and how to do so across my two-raised-to-power sixteen processors
that were tightly-coupled to each other and that shared nothing
between each other. [Walking Through Darkness (Into the Light)
With Equations] In the 1970s and ‘80s,
I walked along a technological trail that was orthogonal
to the trail that was walked by the vector processing
supercomputer scientist. I walked alone. I walked through the darkness
that was the unknown world of the massively parallel supercomputer
that was the precursor to the modern computer. Metaphorically speaking,
I walked within the unknown territory of the massively parallel supercomputer
and I walked with only a small lamp to see by. That lamp was the most massively
parallel ensemble of processors, ever built. The reason I was left alone
to discover how to make an ensemble of one million processors
solve one million problems at once was that it was then said that
parallel processing is a huge waste of everybody’s time. I walked through darkness
and into the light and did so with equations. [How Are Supercomputers Used Today?] How are modern supercomputers used? Nine in ten parallel processing cycles
were consumed by extreme-scaled computational physicists. Their grand challenges
include executing computational fluid dynamics codes
that had the Navier-Stokes equations at their calculus core
or executing the petroleum reservoir simulator
used to discover and recover otherwise elusive crude oil
and natural gas and the general circulation model
used to foresee otherwise unforeseeable global warming. At the granite cores
of most real world problems arising in computational physics
is the system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional
partial differential equations of calculus
that contains partial derivative terms that represented something
in the physical problem the equations govern. [Supercomputing is a Double-Edged Sword] Parallel processed supercomputing
is the Formula One of science and technology. The fastest supercomputer in the world is
ten million times faster than your computer. The fastest supercomputer
is powered by 10,649,600 cores that were totaled across 40,960 nodes. The supercomputer of 1946
was rated at 5,000 cycles per second that could be executed
during an arithmetical operation on a 10-digit number. Today, the parallel supercomputer that can
record a speed of one exaflops could be manufactured. The flop is the acronym
for floating-point arithmetical operations per second. Exascale supercomputing is achieved
by massively parallel processing at the speed of one billion
billion floating-point arithmetical operations per second. That speed of supercomputing
is equivalent to a quintillion, or ten-raised-to-power-18
calculations per second. The fastest supercomputer speeds
make it possible to create extreme-scale and high-fidelity computational
fluid dynamics simulations. Like any technology,
the parallel supercomputer is a double-edged sword
that can be used to do both good and bad things. The supercomputer is a vital instrument that
is used to execute computational fluid dynamics codes
that model blood flowing through the human cardiovascular system. The supercomputer that can be used for
computational medicine and used to understand
how to increase human longevity can also be used to design
weapons of doom. The parallel supercomputer
is used to design bombs that are more than 3,000 times
more powerful than the atomic bomb that was dropped upon the Japanese city
of Hiroshima. On August 6, 1945, that atomic bomb killed
166,000 Japanese. Because supercomputers
are used to simulate nuclear explosions over cities like New York,
the U.S. is reluctant to sell American-made supercomputers
to [quote unquote] “unfriendly nations.” This security threat is the reason
the U.S. Department of Commerce vehemently objects
whenever Japan sells a supercomputer to a nation that is unfriendly
to the United States. This was the origin of the infamous supercomputer
denial list that had been in existence
since the 1950s when it was against the law
to export an American supercomputer to the Soviet Union. This, in part, is the reason
that in the 1980s I was the only Nigerian
that was supercomputing within U.S. nuclear research laboratories. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions to Mathematics] My contribution to mathematics
that was the cover story of the May 1990 issue
of the SIAM News—the flagship bi-monthly news journal
of the research mathematics community—was that I—Philip Emeagwali—discovered
nine as-yet-unknown partial differential equations
that weren’t in any calculus textbook. I figured out how to solve those
partial differential equations and solve them across
a new internet that is a new global network of
sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]
central processing units, or across as many tiny computers. I am the research computational mathematician
that discovered the fastest supercomputer speed
that can be harnessed to solve a system of coupled, non-linear,
time-dependent, three-dimensional, and three-phased
partial differential equations of calculus. I discovered how to solve
that initial-boundary value problem that is posed on the blackboard
of the mathematical physicist. I figured out how to translate
the partial differential equations of calculus
that I invented as partial difference equations
of algebra that I coded as a set of floating-point
arithmetical operations that I message-passed
to an ensemble of 64 binary thousand tightly-coupled, identical processors
each solving as many latency-sensitive problems. I figured out how to translate
the Grand Challenge Problem of physics and mathematics
and translate it into an equivalent set of
a million less challenging problems. I figured out how to translate
the Grand Challenge initial-boundary value problem
and do so across different boards. I figured out how to translate
the Grand Challenge Problem and translate it from the blackboard
of the mathematician to the motherboard
of the computer scientist. I figured out how to parallel process
the Grand Challenge problem and solve it across the motherboards
of the supercomputer scientist. From the Fourth of July 1989,
I began communicating my discovery of practical parallel processing
to the public. In 30-seconds, my contributions
to mathematics and physics is this:
The petroleum reservoir simulator that must be used to recover otherwise elusive
crude oil and natural gas provides correct answers
to incorrect equations. My contribution is this:
I figured out how to derive correct answers
to correct equations and how to solve
those Grand Challenge equations on a supercomputer
and solve them across an ensemble of millions
of tiny computers that outline a new internet. [Correcting Critical Errors In Computational
Physics] Back in the 1980s,
I mathematically diagnosed the critical errors in the MARS Code,
the petroleum reservoir model that was developed by
Exxon Corporation. Some years later, Exxon Corporation
merged with Mobil Corporation and both were renamed
Exxon-Mobile Corporation. The MARS code
is a complex petroleum reservoir simulator. The acronym MARS
stands for Multiple Application Reservoir Simulator. Mathematical physicists
at Exxon-Mobile Corporation and in places like
the Niger-Delta oilfield of the southeastern region of Nigeria
must use the oil and gas flow patterns within a production oilfield. Petroleum geologist
must use that flow pattern to decide
where to drill a water injection well and to decide
how many oil and gas production wells to drill. Petroleum reservoir modelers
use that flow pattern to know in advance
how to maximize the production of crude oil and natural gas
that will be extracted from a group of wells,
and to know in advance how and where
to apply enhanced oil recovery techniques,
or the secondary techniques that must be used
to discover and recover otherwise elusive crude oil
and natural gas. At its calculus core, the MARS code
includes the pressure equation and saturation equation. Both equations are part of the system
of partial differential equations that governs the motions
of the crude oil and natural gas flowing from water injection wells
towards oil and gas production wells. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions
to Calculus] My contribution
to mathematics and physics is this:
I discovered the critical errors that mathematical physicists made
when they were solving the system of
partial differential equations that must be used
to discover and recover crude oil and natural gas. That mathematical discovery
inspired me to invent the nine Philip Emeagwali
partial differential equations of calculus. My contributions to calculus
has rich and fertile consequences for the petroleum industry
and is the reason one in ten parallel supercomputers
are purchased by the industry. My contributions to calculus
was the reason I was the cover story
of top mathematics publications, such as the May 1990 issue
of the SIAM News. The SIAM News
is the flagship publication of the mathematics community. Calculus is a tool that is used to answer
the biggest questions arising in science and engineering,
such as: “How do we recover
otherwise elusive crude oil and natural gas
and recover them from soon-to-be-abandoned oilfields?” Like the quadratic formula
of algebra, each partial differential equation
of calculus must be derived. The partial differential equation
we derived or discovered depends on the fundamental law
of physics, or the processes, or the multi physics scenarios,
we encoded into that equation. We discovered the predator-prey
ordinary differential equations and used them to describe
how two species interact. We discovered
partial differential equations in mathematical finance. I discovered my nine
partial differential equations of calculus
and I discovered them by not following the instructions
in the calculus textbooks. The discovery is made
by not following instructions. By definition, it’s impossible
to discover parallel processing and do so by only experimenting with only
one processor. On the Fourth of July 1989,
I discovered practical parallel processing
and I did so by experimenting across a new global network of
65,536 commodity processors that I visualized as a new internet. [The Grand Challenge Question of Mathematical
Physics] The research mathematician
is searching for something never-before-seen. More often than not,
that thing is a published paper which contains no discovery
and contains no invention that benefits humankind. In academia, a published paper
is rewarded. A mathematical discovery
that benefits humankind is one million times rarer
and is not rewarded in proportion to the effort
required to discover it. For this reason,
the research mathematician in academia only asks questions that are important
to his career. The research mathematician
asks questions that are direct and centered
on abstract mathematics, not questions that are central
on extreme-scaled parallel processed solutions
of the real world problems arising in mathematical physics. [How I Discovered the Philip Emeagwali Equations] In the second half of the 1970s,
I was a research mathematician amongst research physicists
and research supercomputer scientists. In the first half of the 1980s,
I was a physicist amongst mathematicians
and supercomputer scientists. In the second half of the 1980s,
I came of age as an extreme-scaled parallel processing
supercomputer scientist that was amongst
computational physicists and computational mathematicians. That sixteen-year-long quest
was the reason my experimental discovery
of parallel processing made the news headlines
in various industry publications. Looking back to the 1970s and ‘80s,
I knew there were no easy partial differential equations
waiting for me to invent them. It is rare for a mathematician
to invent a never-before-seen
partial differential equation. It is rarer for that equation
to make the news headlines. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions
to Mathematics] In the cover story
of the May 1990 issue of the mathematician’s newspaper,
called the SIAM News, I said that I invented
36 partial derivative terms of calculus. I also said that I invented
36 algebraic terms that corresponded to those
36 partial derivative terms. Those 36 partial derivative terms represented
the temporal and convective inertial forces
that, in part, moves crude oil, injected water, and natural gas
and moves them from water injection wells
towards oil and gas production wells. Those thirty-six partial derivative terms
that I invented can be used to correct the critical errors
in the mathematical techniques that were used to discover and recover
otherwise elusive crude oil and natural gas, namely,
the governing system of partial differential equations of calculus. If uncorrected, those thirty-six errors
will replicate themselves across the trillions upon trillions
of the system of equations of algebra that were derived from discretizing
the governing system of partial differential equations
that were at the mathematical core of the petroleum reservoir simulators
that are used to discover and recover crude oil and natural gas. My contribution to mathematics
was to install those patches of 36 partial derivative terms
and to add them to the pre-existing 45 partial derivative terms. Those 36 errors occurs
at three levels, or as errors in the partial differential equations
that, in turn, become errors in the system of
partial difference equations that were derived from the discretized partial
differential equations. They also become errors
in the supercomputer algorithms that must be executed across
millions upon millions of processors. The new calculus and new algebra
that I contributed to mathematical knowledge
was extremely difficult to invent. In parallel processed
computational mathematics, ranging from
petroleum reservoir simulation to general circulation modeling
of global warming, the trillions upon trillions
of Xs and Ys of the underlying extreme-scale algebra
had their origin from the partial differential equations
of calculus that, in turn, originated from
and encoded corresponding laws of physics. A mathematical analysis
is akin to substituting thoughts and prayers
for experiments across millions upon millions of processors. On the Fourth of July 1989
in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States,
and fifteen years after I began supercomputing in Corvallis, Oregon, United States,
I experimentally discovered that the toughest real world problems
arising in computational physics could be solved across
a new supercomputer that is configured as 65,536 processors
that tightly-encircled a globe and encircled that globe
as a new internet and encircled that globe in the manner
the internet encircles a bigger globe, namely,
planet Earth. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions
to Mathematics] Parallel supercomputing is,
in and of itself, almost a branch of mathematical physics, now called extreme-scale computational
physics. Without mathematics, computer science becomes
computer faith. I had to be a research mathematician
to be able to invent the new partial differential equations
and the corresponding partial difference algorithms
that I discovered. My contribution to mathematics
was to discover how to execute them across
a new internet. They were two things
that I did with my data. First, I copied them
from one processor to another processor and I copied them via email messages. Second, I computed with them
at the slow speed of 47,303 calculations per second
per processor and I did so to reach the
aggregated speed that was, for the first time, faster than
the speed of any vector processing supercomputer. Put differently, my contribution
to extreme-scale computational mathematics
did not reside on the processor that was not a member
of an ensemble of processors. My contribution to mathematics
reside on the processor that is a member of an ensemble
of processors and also resides
on the entire ensemble itself. Yet, my parallel processing experiment
had to wait until the 1980s when 65,536 processors
became available for me to experiment with. I say that a petroleum reservoir model that
runs on three, instead of on four, forces
is akin to driving your car on three wheels
and with the fourth tire deflated. The lesson that I learned is that
you must be a polymath, not a mathematician,
to solve the multi-disciplinary Grand Challenge Problem
that is beyond the frontiers of arithmetic, algebra, and calculus. The reason I could move back and forth
from the blackboard to the storyboard
is that I am a research mathematician and a research physicist. I knew the four forces
that defined the Second Law of Motion of physics
when applied to oilfields and knew that law,
forward and backward, and knew how to encode that law
into a system of nine coupled, non-linear, time-dependent,
and three-dimensional partial differential equations
of calculus that governs the three-phase flows
of crude oil, injected water, and natural gas
that is flowing across an oilfield that is a mile deep
and that is the size of a town. To solve the
Philip Emeagwali Equations that are my contributions
to mathematics and do so across a new internet
that is a new global network of 64 binary thousand processors
demanded that I discretize the problem domain
of the initial-boundary value problem. To discretize the problem,
I approximated continuous space with discretized space, or a finite grid. My new system of
partial difference equations of algebra
are the discrete versions of my new system of
partial differential equations of calculus that I invented. As a research mathematician
that is also a research physicist and that is also
a research supercomputer scientist, my interdisciplinary knowledge
was the necessary tool that gave me the intellectual maturity
that I needed to correct the century-old critical errors
that I found in calculus textbooks that were written
for the petroleum industry. Those errors in calculus
found their way from the classroom to the petroleum reservoir simulator
used by Exxon-Mobil Corporation. [Philip Emeagwali Formula is My Contribution
to Supercomputing] I should mention that
when I discovered that new calculus, or the Philip Emeagwali Equations,
I had to create new algorithms that led me to new algebra
that, also, codified the Second Law of Motion of physics. Inventing an equation
is like making your words a part of the holy scripture. The Philip Emeagwali Formula
was not for the blackboard alone. Nor was it for the motherboard alone. The Philip Emeagwali Formula
was invented for parallel processing across my sixty-five thousand
five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] tiny computers, or as many processors,
that encircled a globe in the way the Internet
encircled planet Earth. The Philip Emeagwali Formula
made the news headlines in 1989 and was highlighted
in the June 20, 1990 issue of The Wall Street Journal. Eleven years later,
that Philip Emeagwali Formula was reconfirmed
by then U.S. President Bill Clinton and reconfirmed
in his presidential speech of August 26, 2000. The parallel supercomputer
is a disruptive technology that gives tech companies
some competitive advantage in their drive for market leadership. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Physics
] The roots of the story
of how the fastest supercomputer was invented
began several millennia ago, and began when our ancestors
had no computing aid. For millennia, our ancestors
used their fingers and toes as their computing aids
and had no mathematical symbols scribbled on their cave walls. For the last one hundred years,
the word “computer” was prefaced as human computer, analog computer, electronic computer,
digital computer, distributed computer, parallel computer, and super computer. A change in how we look at the computer was
accompanied by renaming the computer. The paradigm shift in supercomputing manifested
itself as a change in the name of the technology,
such as changing from sequential processing
that began with computing aids, such as the abacus
that was invented 3,000 years ago, to the parallel supercomputer
that became the world’s fastest computer when I discovered it
on the Fourth of July 1989. Over the centuries,
we changed the ways we counted. We from
the Table of Logarithms to a mechanical calculator
to automatic computers that used vacuum tubes. And then our computing paradigm shifted to
transistors embedded in integrated circuits. [Philip Emeagwali Speedup From 180 Years to
One Day] On the Fourth of July 1989,
I figured out how to record an increase
in computing speeds and do so across a new internet
that is a new global network of 64 binary thousand
tightly-coupled processors that were simultaneously solving
the Grand Challenge Problem that I chopped up
into 64 binary thousand problems. That invention,
called parallel processing, triggered a paradigm shift
in how computers are designed and defined. That invention changed the way
we look at the computer. The new computer
changed from computing only one thing at a time
to computing many things at once. In 1989, I was in the news because
I figured out how the new computer can solve in one day
a grand challenge problem that the old computer
needed 180 years, or 65,536 days, to solve. It’s impossible to fully describe
how I felt the moment I experimentally discovered
parallel processing. At a visceral and intellectual level,
I felt like I was a part of human progress
that was bigger than myself. My discovery
of practical parallel processing felt like I caught a fish
that was bigger than myself. My discovery of parallel processing
was computing’s equivalence of reaching the top of Mount Everest
and being the first person to reach that summit. My invention
is the subject of school reports because it is a contribution
to the development of the computer. That invention
redefined the word “computer.” In the new definition
for the twenty-first century, the computer is a machinery
that is powered by an ensemble of up to millions upon millions of processors,
with each processor akin to a tiny computer
that shared nothing. I believe that our children’s children
could parallel process across their Internet
and do so to upgrade their 22nd century’s Internet
to that century’s supercomputer that should be
a planetary-sized supercomputer. I invented a new internet
that I theorized as the granite core of a new supercomputer. In 1989,
I was in the news headlines because I figured out how to reduce
180 years of time-to-solution on one computer
that was powered by only one processor to only one day of time-to-solution
on a supercomputer that was powered by 64 binary thousand processors. My contributions to geology, mathematical
physics, and supercomputing
is this: I figured out how to compute faster
and do so to discover and recover otherwise elusive crude oil
and natural gas. [A Supercomputer Frontier Without a Map] Back in the 1980s,
practical parallel processing was an uncharted territory
of human knowledge and a new frontier without a map. The marriage of
partial differential equations and massively parallel processing
was pretty abstract to grasp but amazingly powerful. In weather forecasting,
solving the difficult-to-calculate primitive equations of meteorology
tells the weather forecaster tomorrow’s forecast. Back in the 1970s and ‘80s,
to parallel process across an internet
was the most complicated concept and the hardest area
of computational mathematics. If you’re the first person
to parallel process and to solve the toughest math problems, you
will be ranked as the world’s smartest person. Back in the 1980s,
25,000 vector processing supercomputer scientists avoided
this grand challenge problem and did so because
it was ridiculously difficult to solve. The precursor
to the grand challenge problem that I solved on July 4, 1989
was first posed in a science fiction story that was published on February 1, 1922. My contribution to physics was that,
on the Fourth of July 1989, I discovered
how to turn that science fiction, called parallel processing,
that then 66-year-old Albert Einstein presumably read about in the January 11, 1946 issue
of the New York Times and how to turn that science fiction
into a non-fiction that is the vital technology
that makes the supercomputer super. That grand challenge problem
that was at the crossroad where mathematics, physics,
and supercomputing met remained unsolved
for the sixty-seven years onward of 1922. That grand challenge problem
was unsolved until I solved it on the Fourth of July 1989. [The New Fastest Computer in the World] Parallel processing—or solving
several problems at once—upended the paradigm of sequential processing
in which only one problem is solved at a time. Back in 1989, I was asked:
“How is the new computer different from the old computer?” I answered:
“The old sequential processing computer processed only one problem at a time. The new parallel processing computer
process a million problems at once.” As a research supercomputer scientist
that was on a decade and half long quest for the new
parallel processing computer, my magical resonance
occurred on my Eureka moment of 8:15 in the morning of
the Fourth of July 1989 in Los Alamos, New Mexico,
United States. That magical resonance occurred
because I discovered that my new global network of
64 binary thousand processors that shared nothing between each other
can be harnessed as one virtual supercomputer
that is a new internet. The lesson that I learned
from my discovery of that new internet was that supercomputer wizardry
is the craft of looking inside that new internet to change its outside
and redefine it as a new computer. To invent the Philip Emeagwali Formula
that enables supercomputers to compute fastest
that then U.S. President Bill Clinton described in his White House speech
of August 26, 2000, I visualized myself as a cockroach
that was crawling along sixteen mutually perpendicular directions
and doing so to traverse sixteen times two-raised-to-power sixteen,
or one binary million, bi-directional paths
within my new internet that I also imagined within my imaginary
sixteen-dimensional universe. I invented the Philip Emeagwali Formula
and I did so by visualizing myself as the extreme-scaled
computational physicist that was living
in a sixteen-dimensional universe. I visualized myself as the conductor
of 64 binary thousand processors. I visualized myself as orchestrating
the massive computations that I simultaneously executed
on each of my two-raised-to-power sixteen, or 65,536,
commodity-off-the-shelf processors. That was how I discovered
how to harness the millions of processors
within the world’s fastest supercomputers and how to harness them
to solve the toughest problems arising in algebra, calculus, and physics. My discovery
that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989 was that the fastest supercomputer
in the world must and can massively parallel process
Grand Challenge Problems. That discovery made the news headlines
because I recorded the fastest speed across my new internet,
instead of recording it within a new computer. My new internet
was a new global network of commodity-off-the-shelf processors. Those processors
were identical to each other. Each processor operated
its own operating system. Each processor
had its own dedicated memory that shared nothing. The essence
of my supercomputer discovery was that I achieved a magical resonance
and that I broke Amdahl’s Law Limit that limited
practical parallel processing speed increase
and limited it to a factor of eight. I broke Amdahl’s Law Limit
for solving Grand Challenge Problems and I broke that limit
by the factor of 65,536 fold speed increase
that I experimentally recorded, as well as the factor of infinity
that I theorized. Since April 1967, Amdahl’s Law Limit
was perceived as the fundamental limit to the speed increase
that can be recorded across any large ensemble of processors
that was used to tackle the toughest problems
arising in science and engineering, such as executing
a century-long computer modeling to foresee otherwise unforeseeable global
warming. In the 1980s, supercomputing wizardry
was to make the impossible-to-compute possible-to-compute
and to do so while solving Grand Challenge Problems
and solving them by simultaneously sending and receiving
65,536 emails at once. I sent and received each email
to the sixteen-bit long email addresses of my new internet
that was a new global network of two-raised-to-power sixteen processors
that were along one of my sixteen mutually perpendicular directions
in as many dimensions. [Inventing a New Internet] My contribution to the development
of the modern computer is this: I invented the Philip Emeagwali Formula
that then U.S. President Bill Clinton described in his White House speech
of August 26, 2000. I invented my parallel supercomputer formula
to be used to solve real world problems and used to solve them
65,536 times faster and used to solve them
across a global network of 65,536 processors
that were each akin to a tiny computer. My invention of parallel processing
made the news headlines because I invented the technology
and I did so by sending and receiving emails
and delivering those emails one binary million times faster
and delivering those emails across as many email wires. [Parallel Processing Controversy] The parallel supercomputer
was theorized as far back as February 1, 1922. But the technology was only theorized
as a science fiction. For the sixty-seven years,
onward of 1922, parallel processing was debated
and ridiculed as a beautiful theory that lacked experimental confirmation. Practical parallel processing remained
in the realm of science fiction until my experiment of July 4, 1989
that made the news headlines upgraded the theorized supercomputer
to a non-fiction. I was in the news headlines because
I brought that figment of the imagination
—called parallel processing— and brought the technology
from dream to reality. That parallel processing controversy
was highlighted in an article in the June 14, 1976 issue
of the Computer World magazine. That article scorned parallel processing
and mocked the then unproven technology
as a huge waste of everybody’s time. The parallel supercomputer
is an invention that makes the world a more knowledgeable place
and a better place for human beings and for all beings. The parallel supercomputer
made me a benchmark in the history of the development
of the computer. Since the first programmable supercomputer
was invented in 1946, each supercomputer manufactured
was faithful to its primary mission, namely, to solve
the most extreme-scale problems arising in computational physics
and to increase the productivity in industries that use supercomputers,
and to reduce the time-to-solution of grand challenge climate models
and to reduce the time-to-market of the crude oil and natural gas
that were buried one mile deep in the Niger Delta oilfields
of southeastern Nigeria. [My Struggles to Invent a New Internet] As a research mathematician
I thought in infinite dimensions. I thought in sixteen, and higher, mathematical
dimensions and I did so to geometrically visualize
the hypersurface of a hypersphere. In contrast, the non-mathematician
can only see the two-dimensional surface
of a three-dimensional sphere. Back in the 1980s
and in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States,
and as the first massively parallel supercomputer scientist,
I had to mathematically see the fifteen-dimensional hypersurface
that had my two-raised-to-power sixteen processors that tightly-encircled a globe. I visualized
those commodity-off-the-shelf processors as evenly distributed
across that hypersurface. The wizardry
of that first supercomputer scientist resides in theorizing
a never-before-seen internet that is a new
global network of processors and in visualizing
how that new internet can be super-computerized. That first supercomputer wizard discovered
that new internet as a never-before-seen
supercomputing machinery that seamlessly and cohesively
communicates as a unit and computes at the fastest
parallel processed speed possible. Back in the 1970s,
parallel processing was ridiculed as a beautiful theory that lacked an experimental
confirmation. I was mocked by vector processing
supercomputer scientists who believed that I was attempting
to make the impossible-to-compute possible-to-compute. The main argument that was used
to attack parallel processing was this: If a global network of
65,536 processors that shared nothing
was used to solve a grand challenge problem
that was chopped up into 65,536 smaller problems
then the computer spaghetti code for solving each problem
as well as the primitive emails for communicating each computer code
will fall out like bolts which fastened an airplane very loosely. The skeptics of parallel processing argued
that those loose bolts could not be detected
until the airplane flies beyond the speed of sound. In supercomputing,
the equivalence of the speed of sound is the maximum speed
of the fastest vector processing supercomputer ever built. On the Fourth of July 1989,
in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States,
I became the first person to break that supercomputer speed record. For that contribution,
the name Philip Emeagwali became a benchmark
in the history of the development of the modern computer. [How Do I Want to be Remembered?] I am often asked to describe
how I want to be remembered? I want to be remembered
for my contributions to science. I did extensive video shoots because
I want posterity to know what I sound and look like. Two thousand three hundred [2,300] years ago,
Euclid, the father of geometry, lived in Africa
and in a predominately black city. There is no record that Euclid
once travelled outside Africa. Yet, it is assumed that Euclid
is white and of Greek ancestry which is as odd as assuming that
a historical figure in ancient Greece, such as Julius Caesar,
is black and African. My photos and videos will show posterity
that Philip Emeagwali is black and born in sub-Saharan Africa. What if the Igbo-born slave
Olaudah Equiano who fought against slavery
was white? Would Olaudah Equiano
have entered into Nigerian school textbooks? What if William Wilberforce
was a black African? Would William Wilberforce
have been deleted from the Nigerian school textbooks?” My discovery
of practical parallel processing had been absorbed
into general knowledge of the supercomputer. The impact of my contributions
to the development of the computer can be measured by yardsticks
such as the number of school reports on contributions to the development
of the computer that mentions Philip Emeagwali. On the gravestone,
you cannot distinguish between an astronomer that discovered a planet in
the solar system and one that discovered
only a rock in his backyard. And by the end of this century,
the one million active research scientists will be forgotten
just as the one million before them were forgotten. The reason is that
only one in a million scientist have an after-life
as the subject of school reports. Those school reports, in turn,
are what gave 16th century Galileo Galilei
and 17th century Isaac Newton immortality. The school reports on Euclid,
the father of geometry that lived 2,300 years ago
in Africa, are more durable than
a bronze monument of Euclid. Immortality is maintained
on the lips of school children. The spirit of the inventor
will forever be embodied within her invention. The inventor and her invention
are forever intertwined. I am in school reports
and I believe that I will be in school reports
for as long as my contributions to the development of the computer
and the Internet remain relevant. For me, Philip Emeagwali,
my discovery that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989
of practical parallel processing as the invention that underpins
every supercomputer has kept
and will continue to keep my name in school reports. That contribution will continue
to keep my name in circulation around the Internet. Thank you. I’m Philip Emeagwali. [Wild applause and cheering for 17 seconds] Insightful and brilliant lecture

Philip Emeagwali Formula for Inventing the World’s Fastest Computer—Part 1 | Famous Inventors Alive
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2 thoughts on “Philip Emeagwali Formula for Inventing the World’s Fastest Computer—Part 1 | Famous Inventors Alive

  • June 24, 2019 at 4:36 pm
    Permalink

    Sorry Phil. I have already given the presentation for the fastest possible computer, and it is easily demonstrated by simulation.

    You will see a computer whose computational results are concurrent with the input. AND the results are always exact.

    Universal Language, Internet Archive.

    Reply
  • July 25, 2019 at 1:54 pm
    Permalink

    I’m Philip Emeagwali at http://emeagwali.com. My contribution to the development of the modern computer is this: I invented the Philip Emeagwali Formula that then U.S. President Bill Clinton described in his White House speech of August 26, 2000. I invented my parallel supercomputer formula to be used to solve real world problems and used to solve them 65,536 times faster and used to solve them across a global network of 65,536 processors that were each akin to a tiny computer. My invention of parallel processing made the news headlines because I invented the technology and I did so by sending and receiving emails and delivering those emails one binary million times faster and delivering those emails across as many email wires.

    6.8.1 Parallel Processing Controversy

    The parallel supercomputer

    was theorized as far back as

    February 1, 1922.

    But the technology was only theorized

    as a science fiction.

    For the sixty-seven years,

    onward of 1922,

    parallel processing was debated

    and ridiculed as a beautiful theory

    that lacked experimental confirmation.

    Practical parallel processing remained

    in the realm of science fiction

    until my experiment of July 4, 1989

    that made the news headlines

    upgraded the theorized supercomputer

    to a non-fiction.

    I was in the news headlines because

    I brought that

    figment of the imagination

    —called parallel processing—

    and brought the technology

    from dream to reality.

    That parallel processing controversy

    was highlighted in an article

    in the June 14, 1976 issue

    of the Computer World magazine.

    That article scorned parallel processing

    and mocked

    the then unproven technology

    as a huge waste of everybody’s time.

    The parallel supercomputer

    is an invention that makes the world

    a more knowledgeable place

    and a better place for human beings

    and for all beings.

    The parallel supercomputer

    made me a benchmark

    in the history of the development

    of the computer.

    Since the first programmable supercomputer was invented in 1946,

    each supercomputer manufactured

    was faithful to its primary mission, namely, to solve

    the most extreme-scale problems

    arising in computational physics

    and to increase the productivity

    in industries that use supercomputers,

    and to reduce the time-to-solution

    of grand challenge climate models

    and to reduce the time-to-market

    of the crude oil and natural gas

    that were buried one mile deep

    in the Niger Delta oilfields

    of southeastern Nigeria.

    6.8.2 My Struggles to Invent a New Internet

    As a research mathematician

    I thought in infinite dimensions.

    I thought in sixteen, and higher, mathematical dimensions

    and I did so to geometrically visualize

    the hypersurface of a hypersphere.

    In contrast, the non-mathematician

    can only see

    the two-dimensional surface

    of a three-dimensional sphere.

    Back in the 1980s

    and in Los Alamos, New Mexico,

    United States,

    and as the first

    massively parallel supercomputer scientist,

    I had to mathematically see

    the fifteen-dimensional hypersurface

    that had my two-raised-to-power sixteen processors that tightly-encircled a globe.

    I visualized

    those commodity-off-the-shelf processors

    as evenly distributed

    across that hypersurface.

    The wizardry

    of that first supercomputer scientist

    resides in theorizing

    a never-before-seen internet

    that is a new

    global network of processors

    and in visualizing

    how that new internet

    can be super-computerized.

    That first supercomputer wizard discovered that new internet

    as a never-before-seen

    supercomputing machinery

    that seamlessly and cohesively

    communicates as a unit

    and computes at the fastest

    parallel processed speed possible.

    Back in the 1970s,

    parallel processing was ridiculed

    as a beautiful theory that lacked an experimental confirmation.

    I was mocked by vector processing

    supercomputer scientists

    who believed that I was attempting

    to make the impossible-to-compute possible-to-compute.

    The main argument that was used

    to attack parallel processing was this:

    If a global network of

    65,536 processors

    that shared nothing

    was used to solve

    a grand challenge problem

    that was chopped up into

    65,536 smaller problems

    then the computer spaghetti code

    for solving each problem

    as well as the primitive emails

    for communicating each computer code

    will fall out like bolts

    which fastened an airplane very loosely.

    The skeptics of parallel processing argued that those loose bolts

    could not be detected

    until the airplane flies

    beyond the speed of sound.

    In supercomputing,

    the equivalence of the speed of sound

    is the maximum speed

    of the fastest vector processing supercomputer ever built.

    On the Fourth of July 1989,

    in Los Alamos, New Mexico,

    United States,

    I became the first person to break that supercomputer speed record.

    For that contribution,

    the name Philip Emeagwali

    became a benchmark

    in the history of the development

    of the modern computer.

    6.9 How Do I Want to be Remembered?

    I am often asked to describe

    how I want to be remembered?

    I want to be remembered

    for my contributions to science.

    I did extensive video shoots because

    I want posterity

    to know what I sound and look like.

    Two thousand three hundred [2,300] years ago,

    Euclid, the father of geometry,

    lived in Africa

    and in a predominately black city.

    There is no record that Euclid

    once travelled outside Africa.

    Yet, it is assumed that Euclid

    is white and of Greek ancestry

    which is as odd as assuming that

    a historical figure in ancient Greece,

    such as Julius Caesar,

    is black and African.

    My photos and videos will show posterity

    that Philip Emeagwali

    is black and born in sub-Saharan Africa.

    What if the Igbo-born slave

    Olaudah Equiano

    who fought against slavery

    was white?

    Would Olaudah Equiano

    have entered into

    Nigerian school textbooks?

    What if William Wilberforce

    was a black African?

    Would William Wilberforce

    have been deleted

    from the Nigerian school textbooks?”

    My discovery

    of practical parallel processing

    had been absorbed

    into general knowledge

    of the supercomputer.

    The impact of my contributions

    to the development of the computer

    can be measured by yardsticks

    such as the number of school reports

    on contributions to the development

    of the computer

    that mentions Philip Emeagwali.

    On the gravestone,

    you cannot distinguish between

    an astronomer that discovered a planet in the solar system

    and one that discovered

    only a rock in his backyard.

    And by the end of this century,

    the one million active research scientists will be forgotten

    just as the one million before them

    were forgotten.

    The reason is that

    only one in a million scientist

    have an after-life

    as the subject of school reports.

    Those school reports, in turn,

    are what gave 16th century

    Galileo Galilei

    and 17th century Isaac Newton immortality.

    The school reports on Euclid,

    the father of geometry

    that lived 2,300 years ago

    in Africa,

    are more durable than

    a bronze monument of Euclid. Immortality is maintained

    on the lips of school children.

    The spirit of the inventor

    will forever be embodied

    within her invention.

    The inventor and her invention

    are forever intertwined.

    I am in school reports

    and I believe that

    I will be in school reports

    for as long as my contributions

    to the development of the computer

    and the Internet remain relevant.

    For me, Philip Emeagwali,

    my discovery that occurred

    on the Fourth of July 1989

    of practical parallel processing

    as the invention that underpins

    every supercomputer

    has kept

    and will continue to keep my name

    in school reports.

    That contribution will continue

    to keep my name

    in circulation around the Internet.

    Thank you.

    I’m Philip Emeagwali.

    Reply

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