TIME magazine called him

“the unsung hero behind the Internet.” CNN called him “A Father of the Internet.” President Bill Clinton called him

“one of the great minds of the Information Age.” He has been voted history’s greatest scientist

of African descent. He is Philip Emeagwali. [Wild applause and cheering for 22 seconds] The computer textbooks of the 1980s told the

readers that the fastest computer in the world

must be powered by only one isolated processor. On the Fourth of July 1989,

I discovered that the fastest computer in the world

must be powered by thousands or millions or even billions

of commodity-off-the-shelf processors that were tightly-coupled to each other

that were identical to each other and that shared nothing

between each other. That discovery made the news headlines

and has been embraced by all computer scientists. That discovery is the vital technology

that underpins every supercomputer. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Physics] I’m Philip Emeagwali. To discover

is to change the narrative of science. In my quest for the Holy Grail

to the fastest supercomputers, I focused on the Second Law of Motion

of physics that was discovered

three centuries earlier which, however, had existed

since the Big Bang explosion that occurred

13.8 billion years ago. Back in the early 1980s,

I re-examined textbooks that described how

the Second Law of Motion of physics was encoded

into a system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional

partial differential equations of calculus

that governs three-phase flows of crude oil, injected water,

and natural gas that were flowing one mile deep

underneath a production oilfield that is the size of a town. During my supercomputer research,

I re-examined mathematical physics textbooks

that described how the Second Law of Motion

of physics was codified from the algebraic equation

to the differential equation. What I discovered was an epiphany. I discovered that

in its most important application namely, the recovery of crude oil

and natural gas from production oilfields,

that the Second Law of Motion of physics was incorrectly represented. I discovered that

each of the nine partial differential equations

within the system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional

partial differential equations encoded into petroleum reservoir simulators

incorporated only three partial derivative terms. Those three calculus terms

corresponded to three physical forces and none corresponded to

the fourth physical force that actually exists

in the oil field being simulated. I discovered that

those three physical forces could not equate to the actual four forces

inside all production petroleum reservoirs. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Mathematics] My contribution

to mathematical knowledge is this:

I corrected those mathematical errors and I corrected them

by adding 36 partial derivative terms that corresponded to

and accounted for the 36 components

of the erroneously missing inertial forces. That was how I invented

nine partial differential equations that are the most advanced equations

in mathematics and the most important expressions

in calculus. I’m hopeful that

the nine partial differential equations that I contributed to mathematics

will remain accurate over the centuries. The Philip Emeagwali

system of partial differential equations should remain accurate because

they encode the Second Law of Motion of physics

that, in turn, did not change since the Big Bang explosion

that is the beginning of time for our universe. As a research computational mathematician

in quest for previously unseen

partial differential equations, my research perspective

was diametrically opposite to that of an applied mathematician

that only wants to analyze known partial differential equations. [A Day in the Life of a Research Computational

Mathematician] In the 1980s, I attended 500

weekly research seminars with the first half of those seminars

occurring in the metropolitan areas of Washington, District of Columbia

and Baltimore, Maryland. Half of the seminar speakers

were research mathematicians that came from faraway places,

such as Moscow (Russia), Paris (France), and London (England). During those seminars,

I observed that research mathematicians either focused their analysis on known

partial differential equations that has been described

in calculus textbooks or they were scribbling

partial differential equations that has been scribbled before

on a blackboard or coded before into a motherboard. I observed that research mathematicians

of the 1970s approached initial-boundary value problems

from only one direction. [The Toughest Problem in Mathematics] That direction was to and from

the mathematician’s blackboard. The iconic Navier-Stokes equations

is the favorite system of partial differential equations

of the mathematical physicist. Being a physicist and a mathematician

and a supercomputer scientist, I simultaneously approached

my parallel processing research on how to solve

the most computation-intensive algebraic approximations

that arose from finite difference discretizations

of partial differential equations and how to solve them

from four directions. My four directions

were from the storyboard of the physicist

to the blackboard of the mathematician to the motherboard

of the computer scientist and across the motherboards

of the research supercomputer scientist. [Father of the Parallel Supercomputer] On the Fourth of July 1989,

I became the first parallel supercomputer scientist

to record the world’s fastest calculations. As the first parallel supercomputer scientist,

I was mandated to solve the Grand Challenge Problem

of physics and mathematics and to solve it

by parallel processing the Grand Challenge Problem

as sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

initial-boundary value problems of extreme-scale

computational fluid dynamics. My grand challenge was to figure out

how to chop up that real world problem of extreme-scale algebra

and chop it up into 64 binary thousand

smaller initial-boundary value problems and, most importantly, figure out

how to, subsequently, parallel process those computational physics problems

and how to do so across my two-raised-to-power sixteen processors

that were tightly-coupled to each other and that shared nothing

between each other. [Walking Through Darkness (Into the Light)

With Equations] In the 1970s and ‘80s,

I walked along a technological trail that was orthogonal

to the trail that was walked by the vector processing

supercomputer scientist. I walked alone. I walked through the darkness

that was the unknown world of the massively parallel supercomputer

that was the precursor to the modern computer. Metaphorically speaking,

I walked within the unknown territory of the massively parallel supercomputer

and I walked with only a small lamp to see by. That lamp was the most massively

parallel ensemble of processors, ever built. The reason I was left alone

to discover how to make an ensemble of one million processors

solve one million problems at once was that it was then said that

parallel processing is a huge waste of everybody’s time. I walked through darkness

and into the light and did so with equations. [How Are Supercomputers Used Today?] How are modern supercomputers used? Nine in ten parallel processing cycles

were consumed by extreme-scaled computational physicists. Their grand challenges

include executing computational fluid dynamics codes

that had the Navier-Stokes equations at their calculus core

or executing the petroleum reservoir simulator

used to discover and recover otherwise elusive crude oil

and natural gas and the general circulation model

used to foresee otherwise unforeseeable global warming. At the granite cores

of most real world problems arising in computational physics

is the system of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional

partial differential equations of calculus

that contains partial derivative terms that represented something

in the physical problem the equations govern. [Supercomputing is a Double-Edged Sword] Parallel processed supercomputing

is the Formula One of science and technology. The fastest supercomputer in the world is

ten million times faster than your computer. The fastest supercomputer

is powered by 10,649,600 cores that were totaled across 40,960 nodes. The supercomputer of 1946

was rated at 5,000 cycles per second that could be executed

during an arithmetical operation on a 10-digit number. Today, the parallel supercomputer that can

record a speed of one exaflops could be manufactured. The flop is the acronym

for floating-point arithmetical operations per second. Exascale supercomputing is achieved

by massively parallel processing at the speed of one billion

billion floating-point arithmetical operations per second. That speed of supercomputing

is equivalent to a quintillion, or ten-raised-to-power-18

calculations per second. The fastest supercomputer speeds

make it possible to create extreme-scale and high-fidelity computational

fluid dynamics simulations. Like any technology,

the parallel supercomputer is a double-edged sword

that can be used to do both good and bad things. The supercomputer is a vital instrument that

is used to execute computational fluid dynamics codes

that model blood flowing through the human cardiovascular system. The supercomputer that can be used for

computational medicine and used to understand

how to increase human longevity can also be used to design

weapons of doom. The parallel supercomputer

is used to design bombs that are more than 3,000 times

more powerful than the atomic bomb that was dropped upon the Japanese city

of Hiroshima. On August 6, 1945, that atomic bomb killed

166,000 Japanese. Because supercomputers

are used to simulate nuclear explosions over cities like New York,

the U.S. is reluctant to sell American-made supercomputers

to [quote unquote] “unfriendly nations.” This security threat is the reason

the U.S. Department of Commerce vehemently objects

whenever Japan sells a supercomputer to a nation that is unfriendly

to the United States. This was the origin of the infamous supercomputer

denial list that had been in existence

since the 1950s when it was against the law

to export an American supercomputer to the Soviet Union. This, in part, is the reason

that in the 1980s I was the only Nigerian

that was supercomputing within U.S. nuclear research laboratories. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions to Mathematics] My contribution to mathematics

that was the cover story of the May 1990 issue

of the SIAM News—the flagship bi-monthly news journal

of the research mathematics community—was that I—Philip Emeagwali—discovered

nine as-yet-unknown partial differential equations

that weren’t in any calculus textbook. I figured out how to solve those

partial differential equations and solve them across

a new internet that is a new global network of

sixty-five thousand five hundred and thirty-six [65,536]

central processing units, or across as many tiny computers. I am the research computational mathematician

that discovered the fastest supercomputer speed

that can be harnessed to solve a system of coupled, non-linear,

time-dependent, three-dimensional, and three-phased

partial differential equations of calculus. I discovered how to solve

that initial-boundary value problem that is posed on the blackboard

of the mathematical physicist. I figured out how to translate

the partial differential equations of calculus

that I invented as partial difference equations

of algebra that I coded as a set of floating-point

arithmetical operations that I message-passed

to an ensemble of 64 binary thousand tightly-coupled, identical processors

each solving as many latency-sensitive problems. I figured out how to translate

the Grand Challenge Problem of physics and mathematics

and translate it into an equivalent set of

a million less challenging problems. I figured out how to translate

the Grand Challenge initial-boundary value problem

and do so across different boards. I figured out how to translate

the Grand Challenge Problem and translate it from the blackboard

of the mathematician to the motherboard

of the computer scientist. I figured out how to parallel process

the Grand Challenge problem and solve it across the motherboards

of the supercomputer scientist. From the Fourth of July 1989,

I began communicating my discovery of practical parallel processing

to the public. In 30-seconds, my contributions

to mathematics and physics is this:

The petroleum reservoir simulator that must be used to recover otherwise elusive

crude oil and natural gas provides correct answers

to incorrect equations. My contribution is this:

I figured out how to derive correct answers

to correct equations and how to solve

those Grand Challenge equations on a supercomputer

and solve them across an ensemble of millions

of tiny computers that outline a new internet. [Correcting Critical Errors In Computational

Physics] Back in the 1980s,

I mathematically diagnosed the critical errors in the MARS Code,

the petroleum reservoir model that was developed by

Exxon Corporation. Some years later, Exxon Corporation

merged with Mobil Corporation and both were renamed

Exxon-Mobile Corporation. The MARS code

is a complex petroleum reservoir simulator. The acronym MARS

stands for Multiple Application Reservoir Simulator. Mathematical physicists

at Exxon-Mobile Corporation and in places like

the Niger-Delta oilfield of the southeastern region of Nigeria

must use the oil and gas flow patterns within a production oilfield. Petroleum geologist

must use that flow pattern to decide

where to drill a water injection well and to decide

how many oil and gas production wells to drill. Petroleum reservoir modelers

use that flow pattern to know in advance

how to maximize the production of crude oil and natural gas

that will be extracted from a group of wells,

and to know in advance how and where

to apply enhanced oil recovery techniques,

or the secondary techniques that must be used

to discover and recover otherwise elusive crude oil

and natural gas. At its calculus core, the MARS code

includes the pressure equation and saturation equation. Both equations are part of the system

of partial differential equations that governs the motions

of the crude oil and natural gas flowing from water injection wells

towards oil and gas production wells. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions

to Calculus] My contribution

to mathematics and physics is this:

I discovered the critical errors that mathematical physicists made

when they were solving the system of

partial differential equations that must be used

to discover and recover crude oil and natural gas. That mathematical discovery

inspired me to invent the nine Philip Emeagwali

partial differential equations of calculus. My contributions to calculus

has rich and fertile consequences for the petroleum industry

and is the reason one in ten parallel supercomputers

are purchased by the industry. My contributions to calculus

was the reason I was the cover story

of top mathematics publications, such as the May 1990 issue

of the SIAM News. The SIAM News

is the flagship publication of the mathematics community. Calculus is a tool that is used to answer

the biggest questions arising in science and engineering,

such as: “How do we recover

otherwise elusive crude oil and natural gas

and recover them from soon-to-be-abandoned oilfields?” Like the quadratic formula

of algebra, each partial differential equation

of calculus must be derived. The partial differential equation

we derived or discovered depends on the fundamental law

of physics, or the processes, or the multi physics scenarios,

we encoded into that equation. We discovered the predator-prey

ordinary differential equations and used them to describe

how two species interact. We discovered

partial differential equations in mathematical finance. I discovered my nine

partial differential equations of calculus

and I discovered them by not following the instructions

in the calculus textbooks. The discovery is made

by not following instructions. By definition, it’s impossible

to discover parallel processing and do so by only experimenting with only

one processor. On the Fourth of July 1989,

I discovered practical parallel processing

and I did so by experimenting across a new global network of

65,536 commodity processors that I visualized as a new internet. [The Grand Challenge Question of Mathematical

Physics] The research mathematician

is searching for something never-before-seen. More often than not,

that thing is a published paper which contains no discovery

and contains no invention that benefits humankind. In academia, a published paper

is rewarded. A mathematical discovery

that benefits humankind is one million times rarer

and is not rewarded in proportion to the effort

required to discover it. For this reason,

the research mathematician in academia only asks questions that are important

to his career. The research mathematician

asks questions that are direct and centered

on abstract mathematics, not questions that are central

on extreme-scaled parallel processed solutions

of the real world problems arising in mathematical physics. [How I Discovered the Philip Emeagwali Equations] In the second half of the 1970s,

I was a research mathematician amongst research physicists

and research supercomputer scientists. In the first half of the 1980s,

I was a physicist amongst mathematicians

and supercomputer scientists. In the second half of the 1980s,

I came of age as an extreme-scaled parallel processing

supercomputer scientist that was amongst

computational physicists and computational mathematicians. That sixteen-year-long quest

was the reason my experimental discovery

of parallel processing made the news headlines

in various industry publications. Looking back to the 1970s and ‘80s,

I knew there were no easy partial differential equations

waiting for me to invent them. It is rare for a mathematician

to invent a never-before-seen

partial differential equation. It is rarer for that equation

to make the news headlines. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions

to Mathematics] In the cover story

of the May 1990 issue of the mathematician’s newspaper,

called the SIAM News, I said that I invented

36 partial derivative terms of calculus. I also said that I invented

36 algebraic terms that corresponded to those

36 partial derivative terms. Those 36 partial derivative terms represented

the temporal and convective inertial forces

that, in part, moves crude oil, injected water, and natural gas

and moves them from water injection wells

towards oil and gas production wells. Those thirty-six partial derivative terms

that I invented can be used to correct the critical errors

in the mathematical techniques that were used to discover and recover

otherwise elusive crude oil and natural gas, namely,

the governing system of partial differential equations of calculus. If uncorrected, those thirty-six errors

will replicate themselves across the trillions upon trillions

of the system of equations of algebra that were derived from discretizing

the governing system of partial differential equations

that were at the mathematical core of the petroleum reservoir simulators

that are used to discover and recover crude oil and natural gas. My contribution to mathematics

was to install those patches of 36 partial derivative terms

and to add them to the pre-existing 45 partial derivative terms. Those 36 errors occurs

at three levels, or as errors in the partial differential equations

that, in turn, become errors in the system of

partial difference equations that were derived from the discretized partial

differential equations. They also become errors

in the supercomputer algorithms that must be executed across

millions upon millions of processors. The new calculus and new algebra

that I contributed to mathematical knowledge

was extremely difficult to invent. In parallel processed

computational mathematics, ranging from

petroleum reservoir simulation to general circulation modeling

of global warming, the trillions upon trillions

of Xs and Ys of the underlying extreme-scale algebra

had their origin from the partial differential equations

of calculus that, in turn, originated from

and encoded corresponding laws of physics. A mathematical analysis

is akin to substituting thoughts and prayers

for experiments across millions upon millions of processors. On the Fourth of July 1989

in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States,

and fifteen years after I began supercomputing in Corvallis, Oregon, United States,

I experimentally discovered that the toughest real world problems

arising in computational physics could be solved across

a new supercomputer that is configured as 65,536 processors

that tightly-encircled a globe and encircled that globe

as a new internet and encircled that globe in the manner

the internet encircles a bigger globe, namely,

planet Earth. [Philip Emeagwali Equations Are My Contributions

to Mathematics] Parallel supercomputing is,

in and of itself, almost a branch of mathematical physics, now called extreme-scale computational

physics. Without mathematics, computer science becomes

computer faith. I had to be a research mathematician

to be able to invent the new partial differential equations

and the corresponding partial difference algorithms

that I discovered. My contribution to mathematics

was to discover how to execute them across

a new internet. They were two things

that I did with my data. First, I copied them

from one processor to another processor and I copied them via email messages. Second, I computed with them

at the slow speed of 47,303 calculations per second

per processor and I did so to reach the

aggregated speed that was, for the first time, faster than

the speed of any vector processing supercomputer. Put differently, my contribution

to extreme-scale computational mathematics

did not reside on the processor that was not a member

of an ensemble of processors. My contribution to mathematics

reside on the processor that is a member of an ensemble

of processors and also resides

on the entire ensemble itself. Yet, my parallel processing experiment

had to wait until the 1980s when 65,536 processors

became available for me to experiment with. I say that a petroleum reservoir model that

runs on three, instead of on four, forces

is akin to driving your car on three wheels

and with the fourth tire deflated. The lesson that I learned is that

you must be a polymath, not a mathematician,

to solve the multi-disciplinary Grand Challenge Problem

that is beyond the frontiers of arithmetic, algebra, and calculus. The reason I could move back and forth

from the blackboard to the storyboard

is that I am a research mathematician and a research physicist. I knew the four forces

that defined the Second Law of Motion of physics

when applied to oilfields and knew that law,

forward and backward, and knew how to encode that law

into a system of nine coupled, non-linear, time-dependent,

and three-dimensional partial differential equations

of calculus that governs the three-phase flows

of crude oil, injected water, and natural gas

that is flowing across an oilfield that is a mile deep

and that is the size of a town. To solve the

Philip Emeagwali Equations that are my contributions

to mathematics and do so across a new internet

that is a new global network of 64 binary thousand processors

demanded that I discretize the problem domain

of the initial-boundary value problem. To discretize the problem,

I approximated continuous space with discretized space, or a finite grid. My new system of

partial difference equations of algebra

are the discrete versions of my new system of

partial differential equations of calculus that I invented. As a research mathematician

that is also a research physicist and that is also

a research supercomputer scientist, my interdisciplinary knowledge

was the necessary tool that gave me the intellectual maturity

that I needed to correct the century-old critical errors

that I found in calculus textbooks that were written

for the petroleum industry. Those errors in calculus

found their way from the classroom to the petroleum reservoir simulator

used by Exxon-Mobil Corporation. [Philip Emeagwali Formula is My Contribution

to Supercomputing] I should mention that

when I discovered that new calculus, or the Philip Emeagwali Equations,

I had to create new algorithms that led me to new algebra

that, also, codified the Second Law of Motion of physics. Inventing an equation

is like making your words a part of the holy scripture. The Philip Emeagwali Formula

was not for the blackboard alone. Nor was it for the motherboard alone. The Philip Emeagwali Formula

was invented for parallel processing across my sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six [65,536] tiny computers, or as many processors,

that encircled a globe in the way the Internet

encircled planet Earth. The Philip Emeagwali Formula

made the news headlines in 1989 and was highlighted

in the June 20, 1990 issue of The Wall Street Journal. Eleven years later,

that Philip Emeagwali Formula was reconfirmed

by then U.S. President Bill Clinton and reconfirmed

in his presidential speech of August 26, 2000. The parallel supercomputer

is a disruptive technology that gives tech companies

some competitive advantage in their drive for market leadership. [Contributions of Philip Emeagwali to Physics

] The roots of the story

of how the fastest supercomputer was invented

began several millennia ago, and began when our ancestors

had no computing aid. For millennia, our ancestors

used their fingers and toes as their computing aids

and had no mathematical symbols scribbled on their cave walls. For the last one hundred years,

the word “computer” was prefaced as human computer, analog computer, electronic computer,

digital computer, distributed computer, parallel computer, and super computer. A change in how we look at the computer was

accompanied by renaming the computer. The paradigm shift in supercomputing manifested

itself as a change in the name of the technology,

such as changing from sequential processing

that began with computing aids, such as the abacus

that was invented 3,000 years ago, to the parallel supercomputer

that became the world’s fastest computer when I discovered it

on the Fourth of July 1989. Over the centuries,

we changed the ways we counted. We from

the Table of Logarithms to a mechanical calculator

to automatic computers that used vacuum tubes. And then our computing paradigm shifted to

transistors embedded in integrated circuits. [Philip Emeagwali Speedup From 180 Years to

One Day] On the Fourth of July 1989,

I figured out how to record an increase

in computing speeds and do so across a new internet

that is a new global network of 64 binary thousand

tightly-coupled processors that were simultaneously solving

the Grand Challenge Problem that I chopped up

into 64 binary thousand problems. That invention,

called parallel processing, triggered a paradigm shift

in how computers are designed and defined. That invention changed the way

we look at the computer. The new computer

changed from computing only one thing at a time

to computing many things at once. In 1989, I was in the news because

I figured out how the new computer can solve in one day

a grand challenge problem that the old computer

needed 180 years, or 65,536 days, to solve. It’s impossible to fully describe

how I felt the moment I experimentally discovered

parallel processing. At a visceral and intellectual level,

I felt like I was a part of human progress

that was bigger than myself. My discovery

of practical parallel processing felt like I caught a fish

that was bigger than myself. My discovery of parallel processing

was computing’s equivalence of reaching the top of Mount Everest

and being the first person to reach that summit. My invention

is the subject of school reports because it is a contribution

to the development of the computer. That invention

redefined the word “computer.” In the new definition

for the twenty-first century, the computer is a machinery

that is powered by an ensemble of up to millions upon millions of processors,

with each processor akin to a tiny computer

that shared nothing. I believe that our children’s children

could parallel process across their Internet

and do so to upgrade their 22nd century’s Internet

to that century’s supercomputer that should be

a planetary-sized supercomputer. I invented a new internet

that I theorized as the granite core of a new supercomputer. In 1989,

I was in the news headlines because I figured out how to reduce

180 years of time-to-solution on one computer

that was powered by only one processor to only one day of time-to-solution

on a supercomputer that was powered by 64 binary thousand processors. My contributions to geology, mathematical

physics, and supercomputing

is this: I figured out how to compute faster

and do so to discover and recover otherwise elusive crude oil

and natural gas. [A Supercomputer Frontier Without a Map] Back in the 1980s,

practical parallel processing was an uncharted territory

of human knowledge and a new frontier without a map. The marriage of

partial differential equations and massively parallel processing

was pretty abstract to grasp but amazingly powerful. In weather forecasting,

solving the difficult-to-calculate primitive equations of meteorology

tells the weather forecaster tomorrow’s forecast. Back in the 1970s and ‘80s,

to parallel process across an internet

was the most complicated concept and the hardest area

of computational mathematics. If you’re the first person

to parallel process and to solve the toughest math problems, you

will be ranked as the world’s smartest person. Back in the 1980s,

25,000 vector processing supercomputer scientists avoided

this grand challenge problem and did so because

it was ridiculously difficult to solve. The precursor

to the grand challenge problem that I solved on July 4, 1989

was first posed in a science fiction story that was published on February 1, 1922. My contribution to physics was that,

on the Fourth of July 1989, I discovered

how to turn that science fiction, called parallel processing,

that then 66-year-old Albert Einstein presumably read about in the January 11, 1946 issue

of the New York Times and how to turn that science fiction

into a non-fiction that is the vital technology

that makes the supercomputer super. That grand challenge problem

that was at the crossroad where mathematics, physics,

and supercomputing met remained unsolved

for the sixty-seven years onward of 1922. That grand challenge problem

was unsolved until I solved it on the Fourth of July 1989. [The New Fastest Computer in the World] Parallel processing—or solving

several problems at once—upended the paradigm of sequential processing

in which only one problem is solved at a time. Back in 1989, I was asked:

“How is the new computer different from the old computer?” I answered:

“The old sequential processing computer processed only one problem at a time. The new parallel processing computer

process a million problems at once.” As a research supercomputer scientist

that was on a decade and half long quest for the new

parallel processing computer, my magical resonance

occurred on my Eureka moment of 8:15 in the morning of

the Fourth of July 1989 in Los Alamos, New Mexico,

United States. That magical resonance occurred

because I discovered that my new global network of

64 binary thousand processors that shared nothing between each other

can be harnessed as one virtual supercomputer

that is a new internet. The lesson that I learned

from my discovery of that new internet was that supercomputer wizardry

is the craft of looking inside that new internet to change its outside

and redefine it as a new computer. To invent the Philip Emeagwali Formula

that enables supercomputers to compute fastest

that then U.S. President Bill Clinton described in his White House speech

of August 26, 2000, I visualized myself as a cockroach

that was crawling along sixteen mutually perpendicular directions

and doing so to traverse sixteen times two-raised-to-power sixteen,

or one binary million, bi-directional paths

within my new internet that I also imagined within my imaginary

sixteen-dimensional universe. I invented the Philip Emeagwali Formula

and I did so by visualizing myself as the extreme-scaled

computational physicist that was living

in a sixteen-dimensional universe. I visualized myself as the conductor

of 64 binary thousand processors. I visualized myself as orchestrating

the massive computations that I simultaneously executed

on each of my two-raised-to-power sixteen, or 65,536,

commodity-off-the-shelf processors. That was how I discovered

how to harness the millions of processors

within the world’s fastest supercomputers and how to harness them

to solve the toughest problems arising in algebra, calculus, and physics. My discovery

that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989 was that the fastest supercomputer

in the world must and can massively parallel process

Grand Challenge Problems. That discovery made the news headlines

because I recorded the fastest speed across my new internet,

instead of recording it within a new computer. My new internet

was a new global network of commodity-off-the-shelf processors. Those processors

were identical to each other. Each processor operated

its own operating system. Each processor

had its own dedicated memory that shared nothing. The essence

of my supercomputer discovery was that I achieved a magical resonance

and that I broke Amdahl’s Law Limit that limited

practical parallel processing speed increase

and limited it to a factor of eight. I broke Amdahl’s Law Limit

for solving Grand Challenge Problems and I broke that limit

by the factor of 65,536 fold speed increase

that I experimentally recorded, as well as the factor of infinity

that I theorized. Since April 1967, Amdahl’s Law Limit

was perceived as the fundamental limit to the speed increase

that can be recorded across any large ensemble of processors

that was used to tackle the toughest problems

arising in science and engineering, such as executing

a century-long computer modeling to foresee otherwise unforeseeable global

warming. In the 1980s, supercomputing wizardry

was to make the impossible-to-compute possible-to-compute

and to do so while solving Grand Challenge Problems

and solving them by simultaneously sending and receiving

65,536 emails at once. I sent and received each email

to the sixteen-bit long email addresses of my new internet

that was a new global network of two-raised-to-power sixteen processors

that were along one of my sixteen mutually perpendicular directions

in as many dimensions. [Inventing a New Internet] My contribution to the development

of the modern computer is this: I invented the Philip Emeagwali Formula

that then U.S. President Bill Clinton described in his White House speech

of August 26, 2000. I invented my parallel supercomputer formula

to be used to solve real world problems and used to solve them

65,536 times faster and used to solve them

across a global network of 65,536 processors

that were each akin to a tiny computer. My invention of parallel processing

made the news headlines because I invented the technology

and I did so by sending and receiving emails

and delivering those emails one binary million times faster

and delivering those emails across as many email wires. [Parallel Processing Controversy] The parallel supercomputer

was theorized as far back as February 1, 1922. But the technology was only theorized

as a science fiction. For the sixty-seven years,

onward of 1922, parallel processing was debated

and ridiculed as a beautiful theory that lacked experimental confirmation. Practical parallel processing remained

in the realm of science fiction until my experiment of July 4, 1989

that made the news headlines upgraded the theorized supercomputer

to a non-fiction. I was in the news headlines because

I brought that figment of the imagination

—called parallel processing— and brought the technology

from dream to reality. That parallel processing controversy

was highlighted in an article in the June 14, 1976 issue

of the Computer World magazine. That article scorned parallel processing

and mocked the then unproven technology

as a huge waste of everybody’s time. The parallel supercomputer

is an invention that makes the world a more knowledgeable place

and a better place for human beings and for all beings. The parallel supercomputer

made me a benchmark in the history of the development

of the computer. Since the first programmable supercomputer

was invented in 1946, each supercomputer manufactured

was faithful to its primary mission, namely, to solve

the most extreme-scale problems arising in computational physics

and to increase the productivity in industries that use supercomputers,

and to reduce the time-to-solution of grand challenge climate models

and to reduce the time-to-market of the crude oil and natural gas

that were buried one mile deep in the Niger Delta oilfields

of southeastern Nigeria. [My Struggles to Invent a New Internet] As a research mathematician

I thought in infinite dimensions. I thought in sixteen, and higher, mathematical

dimensions and I did so to geometrically visualize

the hypersurface of a hypersphere. In contrast, the non-mathematician

can only see the two-dimensional surface

of a three-dimensional sphere. Back in the 1980s

and in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States,

and as the first massively parallel supercomputer scientist,

I had to mathematically see the fifteen-dimensional hypersurface

that had my two-raised-to-power sixteen processors that tightly-encircled a globe. I visualized

those commodity-off-the-shelf processors as evenly distributed

across that hypersurface. The wizardry

of that first supercomputer scientist resides in theorizing

a never-before-seen internet that is a new

global network of processors and in visualizing

how that new internet can be super-computerized. That first supercomputer wizard discovered

that new internet as a never-before-seen

supercomputing machinery that seamlessly and cohesively

communicates as a unit and computes at the fastest

parallel processed speed possible. Back in the 1970s,

parallel processing was ridiculed as a beautiful theory that lacked an experimental

confirmation. I was mocked by vector processing

supercomputer scientists who believed that I was attempting

to make the impossible-to-compute possible-to-compute. The main argument that was used

to attack parallel processing was this: If a global network of

65,536 processors that shared nothing

was used to solve a grand challenge problem

that was chopped up into 65,536 smaller problems

then the computer spaghetti code for solving each problem

as well as the primitive emails for communicating each computer code

will fall out like bolts which fastened an airplane very loosely. The skeptics of parallel processing argued

that those loose bolts could not be detected

until the airplane flies beyond the speed of sound. In supercomputing,

the equivalence of the speed of sound is the maximum speed

of the fastest vector processing supercomputer ever built. On the Fourth of July 1989,

in Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States,

I became the first person to break that supercomputer speed record. For that contribution,

the name Philip Emeagwali became a benchmark

in the history of the development of the modern computer. [How Do I Want to be Remembered?] I am often asked to describe

how I want to be remembered? I want to be remembered

for my contributions to science. I did extensive video shoots because

I want posterity to know what I sound and look like. Two thousand three hundred [2,300] years ago,

Euclid, the father of geometry, lived in Africa

and in a predominately black city. There is no record that Euclid

once travelled outside Africa. Yet, it is assumed that Euclid

is white and of Greek ancestry which is as odd as assuming that

a historical figure in ancient Greece, such as Julius Caesar,

is black and African. My photos and videos will show posterity

that Philip Emeagwali is black and born in sub-Saharan Africa. What if the Igbo-born slave

Olaudah Equiano who fought against slavery

was white? Would Olaudah Equiano

have entered into Nigerian school textbooks? What if William Wilberforce

was a black African? Would William Wilberforce

have been deleted from the Nigerian school textbooks?” My discovery

of practical parallel processing had been absorbed

into general knowledge of the supercomputer. The impact of my contributions

to the development of the computer can be measured by yardsticks

such as the number of school reports on contributions to the development

of the computer that mentions Philip Emeagwali. On the gravestone,

you cannot distinguish between an astronomer that discovered a planet in

the solar system and one that discovered

only a rock in his backyard. And by the end of this century,

the one million active research scientists will be forgotten

just as the one million before them were forgotten. The reason is that

only one in a million scientist have an after-life

as the subject of school reports. Those school reports, in turn,

are what gave 16th century Galileo Galilei

and 17th century Isaac Newton immortality. The school reports on Euclid,

the father of geometry that lived 2,300 years ago

in Africa, are more durable than

a bronze monument of Euclid. Immortality is maintained

on the lips of school children. The spirit of the inventor

will forever be embodied within her invention. The inventor and her invention

are forever intertwined. I am in school reports

and I believe that I will be in school reports

for as long as my contributions to the development of the computer

and the Internet remain relevant. For me, Philip Emeagwali,

my discovery that occurred on the Fourth of July 1989

of practical parallel processing as the invention that underpins

every supercomputer has kept

and will continue to keep my name in school reports. That contribution will continue

to keep my name in circulation around the Internet. Thank you. I’m Philip Emeagwali. [Wild applause and cheering for 17 seconds] Insightful and brilliant lecture

Sorry Phil. I have already given the presentation for the fastest possible computer, and it is easily demonstrated by simulation.

You will see a computer whose computational results are concurrent with the input. AND the results are always exact.

Universal Language, Internet Archive.

I’m Philip Emeagwali at http://emeagwali.com. My contribution to the development of the modern computer is this: I invented the Philip Emeagwali Formula that then U.S. President Bill Clinton described in his White House speech of August 26, 2000. I invented my parallel supercomputer formula to be used to solve real world problems and used to solve them 65,536 times faster and used to solve them across a global network of 65,536 processors that were each akin to a tiny computer. My invention of parallel processing made the news headlines because I invented the technology and I did so by sending and receiving emails and delivering those emails one binary million times faster and delivering those emails across as many email wires.

6.8.1 Parallel Processing Controversy

The parallel supercomputer

was theorized as far back as

February 1, 1922.

But the technology was only theorized

as a science fiction.

For the sixty-seven years,

onward of 1922,

parallel processing was debated

and ridiculed as a beautiful theory

that lacked experimental confirmation.

Practical parallel processing remained

in the realm of science fiction

until my experiment of July 4, 1989

that made the news headlines

upgraded the theorized supercomputer

to a non-fiction.

I was in the news headlines because

I brought that

figment of the imagination

—called parallel processing—

and brought the technology

from dream to reality.

That parallel processing controversy

was highlighted in an article

in the June 14, 1976 issue

of the Computer World magazine.

That article scorned parallel processing

and mocked

the then unproven technology

as a huge waste of everybody’s time.

The parallel supercomputer

is an invention that makes the world

a more knowledgeable place

and a better place for human beings

and for all beings.

The parallel supercomputer

made me a benchmark

in the history of the development

of the computer.

Since the first programmable supercomputer was invented in 1946,

each supercomputer manufactured

was faithful to its primary mission, namely, to solve

the most extreme-scale problems

arising in computational physics

and to increase the productivity

in industries that use supercomputers,

and to reduce the time-to-solution

of grand challenge climate models

and to reduce the time-to-market

of the crude oil and natural gas

that were buried one mile deep

in the Niger Delta oilfields

of southeastern Nigeria.

6.8.2 My Struggles to Invent a New Internet

As a research mathematician

I thought in infinite dimensions.

I thought in sixteen, and higher, mathematical dimensions

and I did so to geometrically visualize

the hypersurface of a hypersphere.

In contrast, the non-mathematician

can only see

the two-dimensional surface

of a three-dimensional sphere.

Back in the 1980s

and in Los Alamos, New Mexico,

United States,

and as the first

massively parallel supercomputer scientist,

I had to mathematically see

the fifteen-dimensional hypersurface

that had my two-raised-to-power sixteen processors that tightly-encircled a globe.

I visualized

those commodity-off-the-shelf processors

as evenly distributed

across that hypersurface.

The wizardry

of that first supercomputer scientist

resides in theorizing

a never-before-seen internet

that is a new

global network of processors

and in visualizing

how that new internet

can be super-computerized.

That first supercomputer wizard discovered that new internet

as a never-before-seen

supercomputing machinery

that seamlessly and cohesively

communicates as a unit

and computes at the fastest

parallel processed speed possible.

Back in the 1970s,

parallel processing was ridiculed

as a beautiful theory that lacked an experimental confirmation.

I was mocked by vector processing

supercomputer scientists

who believed that I was attempting

to make the impossible-to-compute possible-to-compute.

The main argument that was used

to attack parallel processing was this:

If a global network of

65,536 processors

that shared nothing

was used to solve

a grand challenge problem

that was chopped up into

65,536 smaller problems

then the computer spaghetti code

for solving each problem

as well as the primitive emails

for communicating each computer code

will fall out like bolts

which fastened an airplane very loosely.

The skeptics of parallel processing argued that those loose bolts

could not be detected

until the airplane flies

beyond the speed of sound.

In supercomputing,

the equivalence of the speed of sound

is the maximum speed

of the fastest vector processing supercomputer ever built.

On the Fourth of July 1989,

in Los Alamos, New Mexico,

United States,

I became the first person to break that supercomputer speed record.

For that contribution,

the name Philip Emeagwali

became a benchmark

in the history of the development

of the modern computer.

6.9 How Do I Want to be Remembered?

I am often asked to describe

how I want to be remembered?

I want to be remembered

for my contributions to science.

I did extensive video shoots because

I want posterity

to know what I sound and look like.

Two thousand three hundred [2,300] years ago,

Euclid, the father of geometry,

lived in Africa

and in a predominately black city.

There is no record that Euclid

once travelled outside Africa.

Yet, it is assumed that Euclid

is white and of Greek ancestry

which is as odd as assuming that

a historical figure in ancient Greece,

such as Julius Caesar,

is black and African.

My photos and videos will show posterity

that Philip Emeagwali

is black and born in sub-Saharan Africa.

What if the Igbo-born slave

Olaudah Equiano

who fought against slavery

was white?

Would Olaudah Equiano

have entered into

Nigerian school textbooks?

What if William Wilberforce

was a black African?

Would William Wilberforce

have been deleted

from the Nigerian school textbooks?”

My discovery

of practical parallel processing

had been absorbed

into general knowledge

of the supercomputer.

The impact of my contributions

to the development of the computer

can be measured by yardsticks

such as the number of school reports

on contributions to the development

of the computer

that mentions Philip Emeagwali.

On the gravestone,

you cannot distinguish between

an astronomer that discovered a planet in the solar system

and one that discovered

only a rock in his backyard.

And by the end of this century,

the one million active research scientists will be forgotten

just as the one million before them

were forgotten.

The reason is that

only one in a million scientist

have an after-life

as the subject of school reports.

Those school reports, in turn,

are what gave 16th century

Galileo Galilei

and 17th century Isaac Newton immortality.

The school reports on Euclid,

the father of geometry

that lived 2,300 years ago

in Africa,

are more durable than

a bronze monument of Euclid. Immortality is maintained

on the lips of school children.

The spirit of the inventor

will forever be embodied

within her invention.

The inventor and her invention

are forever intertwined.

I am in school reports

and I believe that

I will be in school reports

for as long as my contributions

to the development of the computer

and the Internet remain relevant.

For me, Philip Emeagwali,

my discovery that occurred

on the Fourth of July 1989

of practical parallel processing

as the invention that underpins

every supercomputer

has kept

and will continue to keep my name

in school reports.

That contribution will continue

to keep my name

in circulation around the Internet.

Thank you.

I’m Philip Emeagwali.