Black holes are one of the strangest things in existence. They don’t seem to make any sense at all. Where do they come from… …and what happens if you fall into one? Stars are incredibly massive collections of mostly hydrogen atoms that collapsed from enormous gas cloud under their own gravity. In their core, nuclear fusion crushes hydrogen atoms into helium releasing a tremendous amount of energy This energy, in the form of radiation, pushes against gravity, maintaining a delicate balance between the two forces. As long as there is fusion in the core, a star remains stable enough. But for stars with way more mass then our own sun the heat and pressure at the core allow them to fuse heavier elements until they reach iron. Unlike all the elements that went before, the fusion process that creates iron doesn’t generate any energy. Iron builds up at the center of the star until it reaches a critical amount and the balance between radiation and gravity is suddenly broken. The core collapses. Within a fraction of a second, the star implodes. Moving at about the quarter of the speed of light, feeding even more mass into the core. It’s at this very moment that all the heavier elements in the universe are created, as the star dies, in a super nova explosion. This produces either a neutron star, or if the star is massive enough, the entire mass of the core collapses into a black hole. If you looked at a black hole, what you’d really be seeing is the event horizon. Anything that crosses the event horizon needs to be travelling faster than the speed of light to escape. In other words, its impossible. So we just see a black sphere reflecting nothing. But if the event horizon is the black part, what is the “hole” part of the black hole? The singularity. We’re not sure what it is exactly. A singularity may be indefinitely dense, meaning all its mass is concentrated into a single point in space, with no surface or volume, or something completely different. Right now, we just don’t know. its like a “dividing by zero”error. By the way, black holes do not suck things up like a vacuum cleaner, If we were to swap the sun for an equally massive black hole, nothing much would change for earth, except that we would freeze to death, of course. what would happen to you if you fell into a black hole? The experience of time is different around black holes, from the outside, you seem to slow down as you approach the event horizon, so time passes slower for you. at some point, you would appear to freeze in time, slowly turn red, and disapear. While from your perspective, you can watch the rest of the universe in fast forward, kind of like seeing into the future. Right now, we don’t know what happens next, but we think it could be one of two things: One, you die a quick death. A black hole curves space so much, that once you cross the event horizon, there is only one possible direction. you can take this – literally – inside the event horizon, you can only go in one direction. Its like being in a really tight alley that closes behind you after each step. The mass of a black hole is so concentrated, at some point even tiny distances of a few centimeters, would means that gravity acts with millions of times more force on different parts of your body. Your cells get torn apart, as your body stretches more and more, until you are a hot stream of plasma, one atom wide. Two, you die a very quick death. Very soon after you cross the event horizon, you would hit a firewall and be terminated in an instant. Neither of these options are particularly pleasant. How soon you would die depends on the mass of the black hole. A smaller black hole would kill you before you even enter its event horizon, while you probably could travel inside a super size massive black hole for quite a while. As a rule of thumb, the further away from the singularity you are, the longer you live. Black holes come in different sizes. There are stellar mass black holes, with a few times the mass of sun, and the diameter of an asteroid. And then there are the super massive black holes, which are found at the heart of every galaxy, and have been feeding for billions of years. Currently, the largest super massive black hole known, is S5 0014+81. 40 billion times the mass of our sun. It is 236.7 billion kilometers in diameter, which is 47 times the distance from the sun to Pluto. As powerful as black holes are, they will eventually evaporate through a process called Hawking radiation. To understand how this works, we have to look at empty space. Empty space is not really empty, but filled with virtual particles popping into existence and annihilating each other again. When this happens right on the edge of a black hole, one of the virtual particles will be drawn into the black hole, and the other will escape and become a real particle. So the black hole is losing energy. This happens incredibly slowly at first, and gets faster as the black hole becomes smaller. When it arrives at the mass of a large asteroid, its radiating at room temperature. When it has the mass of a mountain, it radiates with about the heat of our sun. and in the last second of its life, the black hole radiates away with the energy of billions of nuclear bombs in a huge explosion. But this process is incredibly slow, The biggest black holes we know, might take up a googol year to evaporate. This is so long that when the last black hole radiates away, nobody will be around to witness it. The universe will have become uninhabitable, long before then. This is not the end of our story, there are loads more interesting ideas about black holes, we’ll explore them in part 2.

Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death
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100 thoughts on “Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

  • February 8, 2019 at 4:04 pm
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    There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

    Reply
  • October 15, 2019 at 2:32 pm
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    Whare gravity come from?

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  • October 15, 2019 at 8:35 pm
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    Cool video since Fortnite sported a blackhole for two days 😀

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  • October 15, 2019 at 10:02 pm
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    I’m so curious that I’m willing to fall into it

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  • October 16, 2019 at 12:07 am
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    It says at the start of the video the star would have to be heaps bigger than our sun. So how could we replace the sun with a black hole? We just gonna shove iron in the sun's core? Yeah right

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  • October 16, 2019 at 5:41 am
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    I hate you love Ryan

    Reply
  • October 16, 2019 at 5:52 am
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    Hey Kurzgesagt,what do you think will happen if an immortal being with no feeling of pain will enter a beach hole?

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  • October 16, 2019 at 12:48 pm
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    Black holes are infinate.

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  • October 16, 2019 at 12:58 pm
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    Its me to stupid 🙄 if you want somthing talk with the head not with the…

    Reply
  • October 16, 2019 at 12:59 pm
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    Other side

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  • October 16, 2019 at 9:12 pm
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    where are your sources?

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  • October 16, 2019 at 10:42 pm
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    4 years later: Fortnite gets sucked into a black hole. Everything that this video said happened during the event

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  • October 17, 2019 at 12:57 am
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    I'm here after the fortnite black hole event

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  • October 17, 2019 at 1:18 am
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    "And what happens if you fall into one". You die. Which is, by the way, the same thing that happens to you if you DON'T fall into a black hole. Have a nice day.

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  • October 17, 2019 at 5:44 am
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    Does hawking radiation only happen when the two particles appear EXACTLY at the event horizon, so that one is on the inside of the black hole, and one is on the outside? Or does hawking radiation happen when the two particles appear near the event horizon?

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  • October 17, 2019 at 1:29 pm
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    Perhaps, it's a portal to another dimension …🤔 thatd be nice..

    Reply
  • October 17, 2019 at 1:58 pm
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    I ask my brother who did he fuck last night

    Him: nah just a black hoe

    Reply
  • October 17, 2019 at 4:55 pm
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    A googol is smaller then a googolplex this is a googolplex 1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000…

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  • October 17, 2019 at 7:40 pm
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    im gonna do my senior project about black holes, wish me luck

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  • October 17, 2019 at 9:33 pm
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    fortnite!!!1

    Reply
  • October 18, 2019 at 5:55 am
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    The PBS Spacetime video on how time becomes space and vice versa in a black hole is incredibly fascinating. It locks in the "space" side of the spacetime constant equation so that essentially, mathematically, time moves in reverse when you are past the event horizon.
    Also their video on "the speed of light is not about light, but causality" or something like that is outstanding as well!

    Reply
  • October 18, 2019 at 8:35 am
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    Wait, fusion repels gravity? WAT

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  • October 18, 2019 at 10:09 am
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    H
    He
    Hel
    Hell
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    Hello I
    Hello I just
    Hello I just wanna
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    Hello I just wanna say that if
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    Hello I just wanna say that if your reading this you will become a millionaire
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    Hello

    Reply
  • October 18, 2019 at 1:48 pm
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    Hmmm maybe throw your stuff that you hate of course 🌚

    Reply
  • October 18, 2019 at 7:27 pm
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    Jesus what a horrible music in the background..

    Reply
  • October 18, 2019 at 8:48 pm
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    I love your animation I wish we can WACTH you at school

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 12:05 am
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    2019 anyone?

    👇

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 4:34 am
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    This is so scary learning about our universe. Knowing we'll never see our sun's death. Never will get to see the Milky Way and Andromeda colide. Not getting a glance of a super nova nor a black hole. Because if these events happen, we wont see it occur. Its so scary that we can predict these but not our death. We'll eventually die, we'll die, we all die! And thats the scary part. But we can't predict that cause we're not God.

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  • October 19, 2019 at 11:21 am
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    2:16 HEY KURZGESAGT ACCORDING TO SCHWARZSCHILD, A BLACK HOLE OF A MASS OF THE SUN WILL BE SERIOUSLY SMALLER THAN THE SUN ITSELF!!!!! THAT'S A WRONG SCIENTIFIC FACT YOU KNOW

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 2:19 pm
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    more importantly why do they exist? just to erase things? another reason to die?

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  • October 19, 2019 at 4:01 pm
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    It's lke you having a bad day and watch another Kurzgesagt video and you don't feel sad anymore, you be like filled a whole ton of existential crisis.

    Reply
  • October 19, 2019 at 9:46 pm
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    Is TON 618 the biggest super massive black hole found nowadays?

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  • October 20, 2019 at 5:52 am
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    This is all psuedoscience guys, none of it can actually be observed or proven.

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  • October 20, 2019 at 10:43 am
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    Great content 👍 keep it up 💪

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 2:40 pm
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    I don't understand how one of the particles popping into existence could escape. The event horizon is the point at which it is impossible to escape right? But right outside of it you would still have a massive gravitational force pulling you towards the black hole, right? So does that mean these particles can pop into existence with strong momentum already in a direction away from the hole?

    Reply
  • October 20, 2019 at 2:44 pm
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    Why do we assume it becomes a singularity at the center? Why not extremely dense matter that has enough gravity to create the event horizon? Wouldn't that follow the pattern of how other stars change? Jumping to the conclusion of there being a singularity doesn't seem likely.

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  • October 20, 2019 at 2:47 pm
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    The particles popping into extance are matter/anti matter pairs right? So it seems like, if the anti matter one went into the black hole, it would shrink it by destroying a matter particle in the black hole. And if the matter particle was the one to go into the black hole, it would grow the black hole by one particle. So then seems like the net effect would be nothing. What am I missing here?

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  • October 21, 2019 at 12:58 am
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    How exactly do they know any of this? Real science is observable and testable. This is not.

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  • October 21, 2019 at 2:35 am
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    I wanna go inside one. I want to see what is inside.

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  • October 21, 2019 at 2:35 pm
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    Speaking of different sizes, do you have size 42?

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  • October 21, 2019 at 4:25 pm
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    How black holes are caused: when a meteor crashes into a interdimensional orb

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  • October 22, 2019 at 2:22 am
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    I snort-laughed at "nothing much would change for Earth, except that we would freeze to death of course" Of course XD

    Reply
  • October 22, 2019 at 2:27 am
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    Where do they come from? Where do they go? Where do they come from, black hole Joe?

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  • October 22, 2019 at 9:53 am
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    Send a nuke into a black hole

    Reply
  • October 22, 2019 at 2:23 pm
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    Does this explain fortnite's black Hole?

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  • October 22, 2019 at 6:42 pm
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    Ok but what does a black hole look like? Is it a one-dimensional circle? Can you go around it and see it from all angles? What does the backside look like?

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  • October 22, 2019 at 9:12 pm
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    black hole is racist. You should call it afro-american hole.

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  • October 22, 2019 at 11:15 pm
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    True Fact : Did you know Black holes die because when they die they become a white hole ITS TRUE

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  • October 22, 2019 at 11:48 pm
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    This is why I don’t wanna be a an astronaut ;-;

    Reply
  • October 23, 2019 at 6:02 am
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    There's a hidden dick at 2:01.

    Can you find it?!

    Reply
  • October 23, 2019 at 9:38 am
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    Can't believe they made the thing from fortnite into real thing

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  • October 23, 2019 at 6:32 pm
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    The one from fortnite is the worst one

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  • October 23, 2019 at 8:23 pm
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    Soo whose gonna go in? Ya'll need to contribute!

    Reply
  • October 23, 2019 at 8:33 pm
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    1:05 Heavy man.

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  • October 23, 2019 at 9:59 pm
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    I showed my little 8 year old brother this and he absolutely loved it

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  • October 24, 2019 at 12:27 am
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    I always thought maybe we could use black holes for energy by the pressure of gravity force from black hole, let's say on a machine… maybe a test could be put a machine in black hole attach cord that collects energy pressure as soon as it breaks the machine the energy is collected.

    Reply
  • October 24, 2019 at 8:33 am
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    Where did they come from? Where did they go? Where did they come from, black eyed hole

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  • October 24, 2019 at 6:20 pm
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    Nuclear arrows?

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  • October 25, 2019 at 2:40 am
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    Is that why galaxy’s look like they are spinning

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  • October 25, 2019 at 2:10 pm
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    Is this normal? I was lost 10seconds in the video

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  • October 26, 2019 at 1:24 pm
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    This is the science I like .not mindless science

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  • October 27, 2019 at 12:29 am
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    Tell thanos to 1 snap it

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  • October 27, 2019 at 2:33 pm
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    the real mystery is the place or universe he gets all the stuff from

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  • October 28, 2019 at 3:00 pm
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    Oprah=S5 0014+81

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  • October 28, 2019 at 5:46 pm
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    If I had the chance to go into one,I would!!!

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  • October 28, 2019 at 7:10 pm
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    Well…If I knew about atoms and shit I wouldn’t even had watched this video

    Reply
  • October 29, 2019 at 1:20 am
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    An illusion

    Reply
  • October 29, 2019 at 4:35 am
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    What if black holes were temporary gateways to another dimension.. Aight I’m boutta head out, I’ll tell you guys what i see.

    Reply
  • October 29, 2019 at 1:28 pm
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    I cant understand why people dislike this video…..

    Reply
  • October 29, 2019 at 2:17 pm
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    black hole: i will eat everything

    cooper from interstellar: i will end this man's whole career

    Reply
  • October 29, 2019 at 8:39 pm
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    «Empty space is not really empty» fuck this, I give up

    Reply
  • October 31, 2019 at 1:19 am
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    It needs to be going at the speed of light at the event horizon to remain still since the mass reaches an equilibrium with the speed of light

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  • October 31, 2019 at 1:20 am
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    1 second in a black holes is equal to 7 billion seconds on earth

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  • October 31, 2019 at 1:21 am
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    With these theories explain the excess objects that surround the black hole

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  • October 31, 2019 at 6:47 am
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    So the compact heavy mass deform spacetime only in one direction???? What about the othee side ??

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  • October 31, 2019 at 8:27 am
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    When I was a kid, I used to think a black hole was always moving and expanding, and I thought it needed to eat on planets to survive lmao

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  • October 31, 2019 at 9:20 am
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    Nothing new for Hindus

    Vishnu is the lord of the Unverse
    His
    1st avatar was Fish 🐠
    2nd avatar was turtle 🐢
    where is not on land

    Now Darwin says life started from water

    He is the preservation aspect of the Universe( Brahman: supreme god)

    Shiva is the destroyer aspect
    And
    Now scientistist accepted
    There is a destructible energy Black hole
    Its hindus shivling…

    After human cremation
    We rain the ashes on Shivling(Black hole)
    Same way
    Black hole break the stars planets into small paeticle
    destruction

    Reply
  • October 31, 2019 at 1:39 pm
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    Amaazinngg

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  • October 31, 2019 at 2:08 pm
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    It's hilarious how people try to explain something that doesn't exist .

    EU

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  • October 31, 2019 at 11:21 pm
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    Good to know there is gravity in space now

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  • November 1, 2019 at 11:58 am
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    He said the only way to escape a black hole is by going at the speed of light… but even that wouldn’t be enough… you just can’t escape their gravitational pull.

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  • November 1, 2019 at 4:55 pm
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    I must admit I never thought of anything so beautiful like I was thinking to my self about this concept, such an interesting subject.

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  • November 2, 2019 at 2:13 am
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    I just woke up from a very strange dream and still laying in bed wondering: Could you slingshot with a spaceship around a black hole? It was part of my dream, where a miniature black hole appeared in our solar system close to earth…

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  • November 2, 2019 at 12:19 pm
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    You want to know what a black hole is made from? It is gravity storing my farts. Now you know!… Have a good one!! : )

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  • November 3, 2019 at 9:37 am
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    If you think about it, a black hole is made out of the ultimate element – the maximum an atom can be

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  • November 3, 2019 at 10:47 am
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    Wait so when black holes die they explode right, if the big bang was actually an black hole explosion, what if everything we know in this universe is the remains of the last universe, or specific, the things that the black hole has eaten? When it dies it just eject everything out?
    Sorry if i made grammatical errors.

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  • November 3, 2019 at 4:33 pm
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    can I get a text of the entire thing you just said? Ty <3

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  • November 3, 2019 at 5:19 pm
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    Super late but the animations are amazing

    Reply
  • November 3, 2019 at 8:02 pm
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    Ton is the biggest black hole

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  • November 3, 2019 at 11:43 pm
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    Black hoel is scary O_O

    Reply
  • November 4, 2019 at 1:52 am
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    Where do they come from?

    Where do they go?

    Where did they come from?

    S U P E R N O V A

    Reply
  • November 4, 2019 at 5:29 am
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    4:20….not correct i think

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  • November 4, 2019 at 6:17 pm
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    I thougt that black holes suck out everything, like if we replaced the sun with a black hole the entire solar system would collaps. Guess i was wrong

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  • November 5, 2019 at 12:36 pm
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    ALL WRONG,, BLACK HOLE IS A TRANSFARENT SOLID GRAVITY CAME FROM THE SKIN OF THE GOD OR THE SUPER GIANT GRAVITY REMOVING AFTER THE EXPLOTION OF BIG BANG

    Reply
  • November 5, 2019 at 6:26 pm
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    Am I only one who checked if a black hole is in my pocket? No? Ok..

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  • November 5, 2019 at 9:20 pm
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    All theory

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  • November 6, 2019 at 1:20 pm
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    well we know that if we go to black hole u ded

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  • November 7, 2019 at 12:30 pm
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    so, prince of persia was the inside of a black hole all along

    Reply
  • November 7, 2019 at 3:43 pm
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    How do you know that gravity works under such conditions? What if gravity hinders upon certain conditions and if those conditions are violated then isn’t safe to assume that gravity will henceforth cease to operate? So a singularity is a point of infinite density and infinitely small then isn’t the very constructs of reality and matter being changed into something that is irreversible? Everything (I think) works because it meets certain conditions and has certain attributes. But a singularity is breaking down the fundamentals of matter and everything that makes matter work and thereby solidity and weight and all the workings of matter are being changed into something that can no longer operate as something we can understand or relate to in any way. So gravity would be made obsolete too, because it no longer has the mechanics to accommodate it any longer. Just saying.

    Reply
  • November 8, 2019 at 1:33 am
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    can you tell me from whome theory that iron core part comes please

    Reply

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